So what materials are the real aerospace clothes? Why do astronauts need to wear this special aerospace suit to go to heaven? Let’s take a look at it together!
Aerospace suit (
Aerospace suit is a personal closed equipment that guarantees the life activities and ability of astronauts. It is developed on the basis of the pilot’s closed serviceCostumes can protect the human body harm to the human body.
Aerospace suit can constitute a human climate suitable for astronaut life
. In a vacuum environment, the nitrogen contained in human blood will turn into gas and swell the volume. If a person does not wear a space -dense aerospace clothing, life risks will occur due to the disparity between the inside and outside of the body.
它在结构上分为6层：[123 ] ①Cleway comfortable layer:
Astronauts cannot wash and change clothes during long -term flight. A large amount of sebum and sweat will contaminate underwear. Mainly made of knitted products.
② warm layer:
In the case of small changes in the ambient temperature, the warmth layer is used to maintain a comfortable temperature environment. Selected materials
good heating, large thermal resistance, soft, and light weight
, such as synthetic fiber floc , wool and silk cotton, etc.
③ Ventilation and water -cooled clothes (liquid cooling clothing): In the case of excessive heat of astronauts, ventilation clothes and and Water -cooled clothes emit calories in different ways. If the human body produces more than 350
/ hours (such as outside the cabin), ventilation uniforms cannot meet the heat dissipation requirements. At this time, the water -cooled clothing cools down. Most of the ventilation and water -cooled clothing are made of compressive, durable, soft plastic tube , such as Polyvinylene tube or nylon Membrane
④ qi -density limit layer: In the vacuum environment, only when there is a certain pressure around the body of the astronauts, the astronaut can be guaranteed to ensure that astronauts are the astronauts. life safety. Therefore, the air density layer is made of with good gas tightness coated nepeated tape and other materials. The fabrics with with high strength and low stretching rate are selected. Generally, polyester fabric . Due to the difficulty of activity after pressurization, various joints are used in various joints: such as mesh fabric forms, ripple tubes, and orange petals, etc., combined with the gas bearing rotation structure to improve its activity. ⑤ insulation layer:
Also called a vacuum heating layer. When the astronauts move outside the cabin, the thermal insulation layer is overheated or overdone. It uses
polyimide film or polyester film Between non -woven cloth. Each membrane is separated by network objects to form a shielding together. It has good heat insulation and radiation protection effects, and there must be this layer outside the cabin.
⑥ The cover protective layer of the outer outer:
is the outermost layer of the Aerospace, requires various types of fire prevention, thermal radiation, and the universe space. Factors (micro meteors, cosmic lines, etc.) are harmful to the human body. Most of this layer is made of aluminum -plated fabric . This coat requires strong abrasion and high temperature resistance . In addition to protecting the internal layers from being damaged, it should also be noticed. Generally, it is better to use white or golden yellow. There are helmets, gloves, boots, etc. with the Aerospace suit. Early aerospace clothes can only be used in spacecraft to use in the spacecraft cockpit, and then develop external space uniforms.
The modern new -type cabin has a hydraulic cooling structure, which can be available for astronauts out of the cabin activities or the moon landing inspection. Outside the cabin ( emu
123] The most popular cabin space suit may be an out -of -cabin mobile set of NASA (
NASA ) , this spacecraft is like a private mini spacecraft.
Portable life maintenance system ( PLSS [
emu There are many parts. In addition to layers of fabrics, a portable life maintenance system including oxygen tank ( PLSS ),),),), This portable life maintenance system is dressed like a backpack, providing astronauts with a must -have for survival in space walking. PLSS
Fans and two -way radio for circulating oxygen. The warning and warning system in the portable life maintenance system allows astronauts to understand whether the dress is in good condition. The system covers the protection layer. The upper torso component The upper trunk component of the space suit includes the upper body glass fiber hard shell (
123] HUT ) and arm component. The upper body glass fiber hard shell
The upper body glass fiber hard shell covers the chest and back. It is a vest made of glass fiber, which is usually used in cars and swimming pools. Display and control modules, and the maintenance system of the portable life will link to this part. An important feature of this part is that it can connect drainage and oxygen pipes.
The arm component can provide different sizes according to the astronaut. The fixed diameter ring can make the arm components longer or shorter. Outreaders (
Gloves [ 123]
Because astronauts must be able to use and pick up items while wearing aerospace clothes, off -cabin activities (
) Gloves are used to protect the astronauts from the space environment The damage is designed to facilitate astronauts to move their fingers as easily as possible.
Because the fingers are at the end of the body, these gloves have heater at the fingertips. Through bearing parts, gloves can be connected to the sleeve and allowed the wrist to rotate.
Display and control module
This module is the control panel of off -spaces. There are switches, controllers, instruments and electronic display on the module. Astroniste can operate the system of carrying the system from this module. Drinking the water bag
Use the magic sticker to fix the plastic water bag on the inner side of the upper body glass fiber hard shell Essence Plastic tubes with valves in the plastic bag can be extended from the bag, and the tube and valve can be adjusted to the mouth near the astronaut. The astronauts can open the tube to drink water by biting the valve and stop the bite to close the valve. lower trunk component
The trunk component consists of space -on pants, boots and lower parts of the waist. Among them, waist bearing components can help astronauts move and rotate. Metal closed -fittingThe dry components are connected to the hard upper torso component.
The trunk component has d
The shape ring is connected to the line, thereby connecting the astronaut chain to the spacecraft to protect the astronauts. Will drift away.
In addition to covering the head of the astronauts, the helmet also has a ventilation pad. The cushion guides the oxygen from the main life maintenance system and the upper body glass fiber hard shell to the front of the helmet.
The helmet keeps oxygen around the head and maintains stable air pressure. The main part of the helmet is Transparent plastic foam .
The helmet of the bubble -shaped helmet is covered with a sunshade component, and a thin layer of gold is coated on the sunrise plate, which can filter the harmful rays of the sun. The sunrise plate can also protect the astronauts from extreme temperatures and small objects that may have potential impact hazards.
TV cameras and lights can be installed on the helmet. Communication head wearing
The communication head wearing played a role of walking. When providing astronauts wearing pressure suits, calls in spacecraft, emergency rail pressure, and calls in the return process. At the same time, it has a good function that protects the noise hazards of the astronauts.
The communication header device is composed of noise -proof ear hood, solid durable talker, mesh -like communication cap cover, and a audio -visual pressure -level voice amplifier.
Liquid cooling ventilation clothing
Most long underwear is mainly used for warmth, and this liquid cold ventilation ventilation The underwear keeps the astronauts cool when walking in space. It is made of elastic amino ammonia material and is equipped with a narrow tube of 91.5
By pumping the water into the pipeline near the astronaut’s skin, the cooling water circulates around the entire body of the crew, thereby eliminating the additional heat generated by the astronaut movement Essence The ventilation of the clothing was sweat from the astronauts, and these sweats were used in the water -cooled system. In addition, inhale oxygen by wrist and ankles to help oxygen circulation in the aerospace clothing.
Adult diaper (maximum absorption)
Because out -of -class operations usually continue to exceed more Six hours, astronauts need to wear adult diaper, in themThere are additional absorption materials under the space suit.
Outside -off activities Simple rescue device (
Outreach activity Simple rescue device ( SAFER
) is like a life jacket. The astronauts working at the space station will wear
SAFER . Astroniste is usually connected to the space station through the rope. If a astronaut floating into space,
will help him
She flew back to the space station. SAFER Wear like a backpack. It uses small nitrogen jet advanceders to move astronauts in space. Astronauts can control with a small manipulator SAFER
Waste (123] When wearing a space suit, the astronauts cannot see the front of the display and control module. In order to see the controller, the astronauts wear a watch mirror on the sleeve to view the front settings of the module. The layered material of the space service NASA
Existing the existing cabin outside the cabin There are 14 layer materials, near 130
kilograms weigh to protect astronauts walking in space.
Lydesy of the liquid cooling ventilation
layer is Capsule , which creates appropriate pressure for the body and exists in breathing oxygen. 5
Layers are made of The same material as the camping tent to keep the capsule on the correct shape around the body of the astronaut. 6 Layer is the tear -resistant crack layer in the tear lining . The next
7 layer is Polyester film insulating layer , which makes the aerospace clothing like a hot water bottle. These layers can prevent temperatures from changing internal changes. They can also protect the astronauts from the injury of small high -speed objects flying in spaceHarmful. The outermost layer of the space suit is made of 3 The mixture of the species fabric, which has waterproof, bulletproof, fire prevention ]characteristic. The cuffs list The cuff list is worn on the astronaut’s wrist, and the astronauts will wearOn the short list of tasks they are going to complete.
Safety rope One end of the safety line connects astronauts.The other end is connected to the spacecraft.Safety ropes make astronauts not drift into space.